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ref:fidonet_glossary [2018/09/26 12:38] – [Mailer] fixed typo digital manref:fidonet_glossary [2021/09/22 18:51] (current) – [AreaTag] I guess 50 char area tags are okay (per FMail.txt) digital man
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 ====== FidoNet Glossary ====== ====== FidoNet Glossary ======
  
-This is our glossary of technical terms specific to FidoNet.+This is the Synchronet glossary of technical terms specific to FidoNet.
  
-==== FTN ====+===== AKA ===== 
 +AKAs are additional/alias addresses for an FTN node. Some times you'll see the //Main/Primary// address also referred to as an "AKA", but just know this just means an FTN address, possibly one of many, that may be used to reach a single FTN node. 
 + 
 +If a node belongs to multiple FTN networks (e.g. FidoNet and one or more "othernets"), then they will usually have their FidoNet address (Zones 1-4) as their //Main// address and the "othernet" addresses as their AKAs. 
 + 
 +===== Area ===== 
 + 
 +A FidoNet //Area// may refer to a networked message area (a.k.a. "echo") typically devoted to a single discussion topic or a networked file area. Every area must have a unique //AreaTag//. EchoMail messages are identified by the ''AREA:'' kludge line which specifies the //AreaTag// in which the message was posted. 
 + 
 +===== AreaFix/Area Manager ===== 
 + 
 +AreaFix is a synonym for area manager (the very first FTN area manager 
 +program was called "AreaFix"). Area manager capabilities (remote adding/removing 
 +of areas, changing compression type, etc) are built into SBBSecho, so therefore 
 +no external area manager program is required. If you are not an FTN hub, then 
 +the area manager portion of SBBSecho will probably not get much use on your 
 +system. The Area Manager process has also been called a "Conference Manager" ([[http://ftsc.org/docs/fsc-0057.003|ConfMgr]]). 
 + 
 +===== Area Tag ===== 
 + 
 +A FidoNet //Area Tag// (a.k.a. Area Name or Echo Tag) is a unique area identifier made of up to 50 US-ASCII (traditionally, all uppercase) alphanumeric characters with a few punctuation and symbolic characters (e.g. ''!'', ''.'', ''-'' and ''_'') allowed. 
 +===== Attach or FLO Mailer? ===== 
 + 
 +If you are using FrontDoor, InterMail, D'bridge, SEAdog, Dutchie, or any other 
 +ArcMail *.MSG attach-style mailer, you are using what we will refer to as an 
 +"ArcMail/Attach-style Mailer". Support for ArcMail/Attach-style mailers has been deprecated in SBBSecho v3 and unless there is anyone coming forward to test what support does remain, it will be removed in the future. 
 + 
 +If you are using BinkD (Binkley daemon), Argus/Radius/Taurus, BinkleyTerm, Portal of Power, or any other mailer that uses Binkley-Style-Outbound (BSO) directories and FLO/CLO/HLO/DLO files (a.k.a. FLO-files), you are using what we will refer to as a "Binkley/FLO-Style Mailer"
 + 
 +It is very important that you select the correct "Mailer Type" in the ''[[util:echocfg]]'' utility (or ''sbbsecho.ini'' file). 
 + 
 +===== Bad Packet ===== 
 +If SBBSecho cannot process an inbound packet file, it will rename the file, giving it a ''.bad'' extension. Checking the SBBSecho log file  (e.g. ''[[dir:data]]/sbbsecho.log'') for the reason for the ''Bad packet detected'', if you can then remedy the problem and rename the ''*.bad'' files to ''*.pkt'', SBBSecho will rediscover and attempt to re-process the packet files. Alternatively, you can just delete ''.bad'' packets and perform a hub re-scan if you expect the packets contain only EchoMail (no NetMail) and you want the missing EchoMail messages from the packets.  
 + 
 +==== Identifying Bad Packets ==== 
 + 
 +  - File length is shorter than a packet header (58 bytes) 
 +  - Packet terminator (''0x0000'', 2 NUL bytes) missing from end of the file 
 +  - File read failure (e.g. permissions or file locking issue) 
 +  - Source address does not match expected address (e.g. for packets found in //inboxes//
 +  - Packet header cannot be parsed (e.g. is not a ''type 2'' packet header) 
 +  - Packet header contains incorrect packet password 
 +  - Packet contains one or more "grunged messages" (e.g. packed //message type// is not ''2''
 + 
 +===== BinkP ===== 
 + 
 +[[wp>BinkP]] is the //BinkD Protocol//, a TCP application protocol invented by Dima Maloff in 1996 and later standardized by the FTSC, for transferring files (primarily, [[ref:FidoNet Packets]]) between Internet hosts over IP. The BinkP protocol was originally implemented as an ad-hoc protocol for the transferring of files between instances of the Binkley Daemon FidoNet mailer ([[https://2f.ru/binkd/|BinkD]]). The protocol was later adopted by other FidoNet mailers and later became a FidoNet standard. 
 + 
 +===== Boss ===== 
 + 
 +A //Boss Node// is a FidoNet node that has one or more //Point Nodes// (a.k.a. points) has subordinate and dependent nodes. 
 +===== Bundle ===== 
 + 
 +An FTN bundle is a single file archive of one or more (usually compressed) 
 +packets. Bundles will have file extensions where the first two characters 
 +represent the day of the week the bundle was created (MO, TU, WE, TH, FR, SA, 
 +and SU) and the third character of the extension is a number or letter. The 
 +first eight characters of the filename may be anything, but are usually 
 +hexadecimal digits representing the FTN node address (or relative address) of 
 +the system that created the bundle. SBBSecho changes the file extension of bad 
 +inbound bundles to ''.?_?'' or ''.?-?'' (e.g. ''*.mo0'' would be renamed to ''*.m_0''). 
 + 
 +===== Downlink ===== 
 + 
 +A //Downlink// is a Linked Node which your system "feeds" messages and for which your system is responsible for routing received messages from. 
 + 
 +===== Echo ===== 
 +  * Message echo - A way to distribute messages between systems (see EchoMail). 
 +  * File echo - Like a message echo, but for distributing files instead of messages. 
 + 
 +===== EchoMail ===== 
 + 
 +Group or conference messages of a particular subject matter (a.k.a. Message Area). Usually 
 +distributed on a regional or continental scale (e.g. FidoNet Zone 1 backbone). 
 +FTN style echomail areas have a unique name associated with them to 
 +distinguish each area from the others. These agreed upon area names are called //Area Tags// or //Echo Tags//. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== FTN =====
 FidoNet Technology Network: Any network using FidoNet standards for addressing, FidoNet Technology Network: Any network using FidoNet standards for addressing,
 mail packets, mail sessions, node lists, etc. mail packets, mail sessions, node lists, etc.
  
-==== Zones, Nets, Nodes, and Points? ==== +===== Kludge Line =====  
-FTN node addresses are like phone numbersthey are made up of multiple +Due to historic FTN message and packet header limitationssome message metadata was defined in the body text of each message in the form of "control lines" (often called //kludge lines//). Each control line begins with a Ctrl-A (ASCII 1) character followed by a keyword, a space, some optional data, and terminated with a carriage return (ASCII 13character. Different control line keywords are used to define different metadata values
-components (four usuallybut sometimes three and sometimes five). +
  
-The main four components are: zonenet, node, and point. +Kludge/control lines are not normally displayed to messages viewers (users)but many FidoNet-compatible message readers have an option to view the control lines where it is customary to replace the Ctrl-A character with an ''@'' character.
-Each component is specified by a decimal (base-10) number, separated by symbols +
-(no spaces):+
  
- Zone:Net/Node.Point+Synchronet stores FTN control lines in its message headers, so you must use the Terminal Server operator->View Header command (''H'') or the [[util:smbutil]] sysop utility, to view a message header to see the metadata that may have been received via FTN kludge lines.
  
-The zone represents the continent (if FidoNet) or the network number (if other +Some control lines are only expected in EchoMail messages, some only in NetMail, and some may appear in either.
-FTN network). All FidoNet nodes in North America have a zone 1 address. When +
-the zone is specified in an addressit is the first component and must be +
-followed by a colon. If the zone is not present in an address, the local +
-system's zone is assumed.+
  
-The net represents the network number of the FTN node. Duplicate net numbers +===== Mailer =====
-may exist between zones. If the net number is not present, the local system'+
-net is assumed.+
  
-The node number specifies an exact FTN node within a network. The node number +A [[resource:FidoNet Mailer]] is the software component which transfers [[ref:FidoNet Packets]] between systems ("FidoNet nodes").
-is the only required element of an FTN node address. +
-The point is an optional component which specifies a sub-node that does not +
-directly receive mail and is also not listed in the main FTN node list, but +
-instead gets all its mail from its boss-node (zone:net/node.0). When the point +
-is not specified, 0 (zerois assumed (i.e. ''1:2/3'' and ''1:2/3.0'' are identical) +
-which indicates the system with that address is **not** a point node.+
  
-Zones can be grouped into named domains (e.g. ''@fidonet''), but FTN domains +In the dial-up BBS days, it was common for a FidoNet mailer to answer the phone modem to determine if the incoming "caller" was another FidoNet mailer or a potential user for the local BBS. If the caller was determined to be a user (e.g. due to timeout or the user hitting the ''ESC'' key), it would launch the BBS program and pass control of the call to the BBS: 
-are pretty rarely used in the twenty-first century.+  Press the ESC key twice to access the BBS. 
 +These types of mailers (e.g. FrontDoor, D'Bridge, Portal of Power, etc.) were often called "front-end mailers" and are fairly obsolete today, replaced by modern mailers that support Internet-based FidoNet packet transfers (e.g. using [[#BinkP]] over TCP/IP).
  
-A 2D (2 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address containing just the +===== NetMail =====
-net and node numbers (e.g. ''103/705'').+
  
-A 3D (3 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address containing the zone, +Point-to-point (usually person-to-person) directly-delivered or routed messages (now more commonly referred to as "e-mail" or just "mail").
-net, and node numbers (e.g. ''1:103/705''), specifically excluding the point number +
-if it exists.+
  
-A 4D (4 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address containing the zone, +===== Network Coordinator ===== 
-net, node, and optional point numbers (e.g. ''1:103/705.1'').+Primarily a node who has the added task of administering a LOCAL segment of the nodelist for his/her NETa NET may cover part or all of a city and or part of a country.
  
-A 5D (5 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address consisting of a standard +===== Node ===== 
-3D or 4D address with an appended "@domain" (e.g. ''1:103/705@fidonet'').+How a particular FTN/Fidonet system is referred to.
  
-==== Node ==== 
 All FidoNet node-listed systems are //nodes// of the network. All FidoNet node-listed systems are //nodes// of the network.
  
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 A **Linked Node** is a node which is linked with your system in some pre-arranged way and is reflected in your SBBSecho configuration (e.g. packet password, AreaFix password, packet type, archive type, etc.).  Linked Nodes may also be linked with one or more EchoMail message areas on your system as reflected in your Area File. A **Linked Node** is a node which is linked with your system in some pre-arranged way and is reflected in your SBBSecho configuration (e.g. packet password, AreaFix password, packet type, archive type, etc.).  Linked Nodes may also be linked with one or more EchoMail message areas on your system as reflected in your Area File.
  
-==== AKA ==== +===== Nodelist =====
-AKAs are additional/alias addresses for an FTN node. Some times you'll see the //Main/Primary// address also referred to as an "AKA", but just know this just means an FTN address, possibly one of many, that may be used to reach a single FTN node.+
  
-If node belongs to multiple FTN networks (e.g. FidoNet and one or more "othernets")then they will usually have their FidoNet address (Zones 1-4) as their //Main// address and the "othernet" addresses as their AKAs.+A text file, in standardized structured format that is both human and computer-readablethat lists all the nodes of a FidoNet-style network along with metadata describing each node's location, operator, capabilities and its role within the network hierarchy.
  
-==== Uplink ====+===== Packet =====
  
-An //Uplink// is a Linked Node which is your system's pre-arranged conduit to the rest of the message network (a.k.a. your hub).+An [[ref:FidoNet packets|FTN packet]] is a group of one or more messages contained in single uncompressed binary filePackets may contain EchoMail and/or NetMail messages.
  
-==== Downlink ====+Packet files usually have a ''.pkt'' suffix/extension, although outbound NetMail packets for Binkley/FLO Mailers will have ''.?ut'' extensions (where ? is either ''o'', ''c'', ''d'', or ''h'', e.g. ''.out'', ''.cut'', ''.hut'', etc.). The first eight characters of the filename may be anything, but are usually decimal or hexadecimal digits representing the date and time the packet was created.
  
-A //Downlink// is a Linked Node which your system "feeds" messages and for which your system is responsible for routing received messages from.+You can use the [[person:digital man]]'s ''pktdump'' utility to view packet headers and help identify and fix problems with inbound and outbound FTN packets.
  
-==== Mailer ====+It is generally **not** a good idea to try and use a plain-text viewer or editor to inspect [[ref:FidoNet packets]] since they contain binary integer values that may be interpreted as terminal control characters and the header data just won't be human-readable in this manner. Use a tool specifically designed to view FTN packets (e.g. ''pktdump'').
  
-A [[resource:FidoNet Mailer]] is the software component which transfers [[ref:FidoNet Packets]] between systems ("FidoNet nodes").+===== Point =====
  
-In the dial-up BBS days, it was common for a FidoNet mailer to answer the phone modem to determine if the incoming "caller" was another FidoNet mailer or a potential user for the local BBSIf the caller was determined to be user (e.g. due to timeout or the user hitting the ''ESC'' key), it would launch the BBS program and pass control of the call to the BBS: +A //Point Node// is an FTN node with an address that ends in ''.1'' or another non-zero fractional valueAn FTN node address without period/dot (''.''or that ends in ''.0'' is **not** a point node address.
-  Press the ESC key twice to access the BBS. +
-These types of mailers (e.g. FrontDoor, D'Bridge, Portal of Power, etc.) were often called "front-end mailers" and are fairly obsolete today, replaced by modern mailers that support Internet-based FidoNet packet transfers (e.g. using [[#BinkP]] over TCP/IP).+
  
-==== Attach or FLO Mailer? ====+A Point Node is not listed in the network's nodelist and is dependent on its //Boss Node// to receive and deliver files, including NetMail and EchoMail packets, on its behalf.
  
-If you are using FrontDoor, InterMail, D'bridge, SEAdog, Dutchie, or any other +===== Poll =====
-ArcMail *.MSG attach-style mailer, you are using what we will refer to as an +
-"ArcMail/Attach-style Mailer". Support for ArcMail/Attach-style mailers has been deprecated in SBBSecho v3 and unless there is anyone coming forward to test what support does remain, it will be removed in the future.+
  
-If you are using BinkD (Binkley daemon), Argus/Radius/Taurus, BinkleyTerm, Portal of Power, or any other mailer that uses Binkley-Style-Outbound (BSO) directories and FLO/CLO/HLO/DLO files (a.k.a. FLO-files), you are using what we will refer to as a "Binkley/FLO-Style Mailer".+A poll of a node is when a connection is attempted to a linked-node even though there are no files (e.gmailwaiting to be sent to that node.
  
-It is very important that you select the correct "Mailer Type" in the ''[[util:echocfg]]'' utility (or ''sbbsecho.ini'' file).+===== Region ===== 
 +A REGION may cover an entire country or just a part of a country depending on it's size, the REGIONAL address is not obvious in the end node address.
  
-==== BinkP ====+===== Regional Coordinator ===== 
 +Primarily a node who has the added task of administering a REGIONAL segment of the nodelist for his/her REGION.
  
-[[wp>BinkP]] is the //BinkD Protocol//, a TCP application protocol invented by Dima Maloff in 1996 and later standardized by the FTSC, for transferring files (primarily, [[ref:FidoNet Packets]]) between Internet hosts over IP. The BinkP protocol was originally implemented as an ad-hoc protocol for the transferring of files between instances of the Binkley Daemon FidoNet mailer ([[https://2f.ru/binkd/|BinkD]]). The protocol was later adopted by other FidoNet mailers and later became a FidoNet standard.+===== Scan =====
  
-==== NetMail ====+To //scan// message bases means to //export// locally-posted messages from your BBS's local message bases into EchoMail packets to be sent to your upstream link (hub) and any downstream linked nodes you may have.
  
-Point-to-point (usually person-to-person) directly-delivered or routed messages (now more commonly referred to as "e-mail" or just "mail").+===== TIC =====
  
-==== EchoMail ====+"TIC" is the standard file extension for the information file that is sent along with a file that is distributed in a File Echo
  
-Group or conference messages of a particular subject matter (a.k.a. Message Area). Usually +===== Toss =====
-distributed on a regional or continental scale (e.g. FidoNet Zone 1 backbone). +
-FTN style echomail areas have a unique name associated with them to +
-distinguish each area from the others. These agreed upon area names are called //Area Tags// or //Echo Tags//. +
- +
-==== Toss ====+
  
 To //toss// EchoMail packets or messages means to //import// the packed messages into your BBS's local message bases where your users can read and reply to the messages. FidoNet EchoMail programs, like SBBSecho, are often referred to as "Tossers" for this reason. To //toss// EchoMail packets or messages means to //import// the packed messages into your BBS's local message bases where your users can read and reply to the messages. FidoNet EchoMail programs, like SBBSecho, are often referred to as "Tossers" for this reason.
  
-==== Scan ====+===== Uplink =====
  
-To //scan// message bases means to //export// locally-posted messages from your BBS'local message bases into EchoMail packets to be sent to your upstream link (hub) and any downstream linked nodes you may have.+An //Uplink// is a Linked Node which is your system'pre-arranged conduit to the rest of the message network (a.k.a. your hub).
  
-==== Packet ====+===== Zones, Nets, Nodes, and Points? ===== 
 +FTN node addresses are like phone numbers, they are made up of multiple 
 +components (four usually, but sometimes three and sometimes five). 
  
-An FTN packet is a group of one or more messages contained in a single +The main four FTN address components are: Zone, Net, Node, and Point
-uncompressed file. Packets may contain echomail and/or netmail messages+Each component is specified by decimal (base-10) numberseparated by symbols 
-Packets files usually have ''.pkt'' extensionalthough outbound NetMail packets for +(no spaces):
-Binkley/FLO Mailers will have ''.?ut'' extensions (where ? is either ''o'', ''c'', ''d'', or ''h'', e.g ''.out'', ''.cut'', etc.). The +
-first eight characters of the filename may be anything, but are usually decimal or hexadecimal +
-digits representing the date and time the packet was created.+
  
-You can use the [[person:digital man]]'s ''pktdump'' utility to view packet headers and help identify and fix problems with inbound and outbound packets.+**//Zone:Net/Node.Point//**
  
-=== Bad Packet === +The Zone represents the continent (if FidoNet) or the network number (if other 
-If SBBSecho cannot process an inbound packet file, it will rename the file, giving it a ''.bad'' extension. Checking the SBBSecho log file  (e.g''[[dir:data]]/sbbsecho.log'') for the reason for the ''Bad packet detected''if you can then remedy the problem and rename the ''*.bad'' files to ''*.pkt''SBBSecho will rediscover and attempt to re-process the packet files. Alternatively, you can just delete ''.bad'' packets and perform a hub re-scan if you expect the packets contain only EchoMail (no NetMailand you want the missing EchoMail messages from the packets+FTN network)All FidoNet nodes in North America have a Zone 1 addressWhen 
 +the zone is specified in an addressit is the first component and must be 
 +followed by a colon. If the Zone is not present in an address, the local 
 +system's primary Zone is assumedFidoNet uses Zones 1 through 4 (historically, 1 through 6).
  
-== Identifying Bad Packets ==+The Net represents the network number of the FTN node. Duplicate Net numbers 
 +may exist between Zones (this is no longer true of Zones within FidoNet). If the Net number is not present, the local system'
 +Net is assumed.
  
-  - File length is shorter than packet header (58 bytes) +The Node number specifies an exact FTN node within network. The Node number 
-  Packet terminator (''0x0000'', 2 NUL bytes) missing from end of the file +is the only technically-required element of an FTN node address (however, "when in doubt, dial it out!").
-  - File read failure (e.g. permissions or file locking issue) +
-  - Source address does not match expected address (e.g. for packets found in //inboxes//) +
-  - Packet header cannot be parsed (e.g. is not a ''type 2'' packet header) +
-  - Packet header contains incorrect packet password +
-  - Packet contains one or more "grunged messages" (e.g. packed //message type// is not ''2''+
-==== Bundle ====+
  
-An FTN bundle is a single file archive of one or more (usually compressed) +The Point is an optional component which specifies sub-node that does not 
-packets. Bundles will have file extensions where the first two characters +directly receive mail and is also not listed in the main FTN node list, but 
-represent the day of the week the bundle was created (MO, TU, WE, TH, FR, SA, +instead gets all its mail from its boss-node (Zone:Net/Node.0). When the Point number 
-and SU) and the third character of the extension is a number or letter. The +is not specified, 0 (zero) is assumed (i.e. ''1:2/3'' and ''1:2/3.0'' are identical) 
-first eight characters of the filename may be anything, but are usually +which indicates the system with that address is **not** a point node.
-hexadecimal digits representing the FTN node address (or relative addressof +
-the system that created the bundleSBBSecho changes the file extension of bad +
-inbound bundles to ''.?_?'' or ''.?-?'' (e.g. ''*.mo0'' would be renamed to ''*.m_0'').+
  
-==== AreaFix/Area Manager ====+Zones can be grouped into named domains (e.g. ''@fidonet''), but FTN domains 
 +are pretty rarely used in the twenty-first century. Do not confuse FTN domains with Internet domains (they're not the same)!
  
-AreaFix is a synonym for area manager (the very first FTN area manager +A 2D (2 dimensionaladdress refers to an FTN address containing just the 
-program was called "AreaFix"). Area manager capabilities (remote adding/removing +Net and Node numbers (e.g. ''103/705'').
-of areas, changing compression type, etc) are built into SBBSecho, so therefore +
-no external area manager program is required. If you are not an FTN hub, then +
-the area manager portion of SBBSecho will probably not get much use on your +
-system. The Area Manager process has also be called a "Conference Manager" ([[http://ftsc.org/docs/fsc-0057.003|ConfMgr]]).+
  
-==== Kludge Line ====  +A 3D (3 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address containing the Zone, 
-Due to historic FTN message and packet header limitations, some message metadata was defined in body text of each message in the form of "control lines" (often called //kludge lines//)Each control line begins with a Ctrl-A (ASCII 1) character followed by a keyworda space, some optional data, and terminated with a carriage return (ASCII 13) character. Different control line keywords are used define different metadata values+Net, and Node numbers (e.g. ''1:103/705''), specifically excluding the Point number 
 +if it exists.
  
-Kludge/control lines are not normally displayed to messages viewers (users), but most programs have an option to view the control lines where it is customary to replace the Ctrl-A character with an ''@'' character.+A 4D (4 dimensionaladdress refers to an FTN address containing the Zone, 
 +Net, Node, and optional Point numbers (e.g. ''1:103/705.1'').
  
-Synchronet stores FTN control lines in its message headers, so you must use the Terminal Server operator->View Header command (''H'')to view a message header to see the metadata that may have been received via FTN kludge lines.+A 5D (5 dimensional) address refers to an FTN address consisting of a standard 
 +3D or 4D address with an appended "@domain" (e.g. ''1:103/705@fidonet''). This domain component is limited to 8 case-insensitive characters - it is **not** an Internet domain.
  
-Some control lines are only expected in EchoMail messagessome only in NetMail, and some in either.+===== Zone Coordinator ===== 
 +Primarily a node who has the added task of administering a ZONE segment of the nodelist for his/her ZONEa ZONE can cover a single country or several countries.
  
 ===== See Also ===== ===== See Also =====
ref/fidonet_glossary.1537990695.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/26 12:38 by digital man
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